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History of Bucharest

Bucharest was founded by the Slav in the 9th century and was invaded by the Mongol in the 13th century but it still remained uninhabited till the 14th century. The city was first mentioned in the 15th century as the one of the residences of Prince Vlad. Later it became the centre of Wallachia. In the 17th century Bucharest became the largest city in the region and the political, commercial centre of the country. However, the city was destroyed by Sinan Pasha's forces at the end of the 16th century, but it was rebuilt under the reign of Radu Mihnea.

In 1716 Wallachia was placed under the rule of the Phanariotes and it was a landmark in Bucharest's history. In 1737 the city was attacked by Habsburg troops and stricken by economic crisis. Bucharest was occupied by Russian troops during the war between 1768-74.

After the peace was signed in Bucharest, Ioan Gheorghe Caragea brought a series of important cultural and social measures, but also witnessed the devastating Caragea's plague in 1813-1814. In May 16, 1828 Bucharest was occupied by Russian troops due to the new Russo-Turkish War.

The new prince Gheorghe Bibescu completed a water supply network, worked on public gardens, began constructing the National Theatre of Romania. In 1848 Wallachian revolution outbroke in Bucharest. Bucharest remained under foreign occupation until late April 1851, and was again held by the Russian troops during the Crimean War (1853 -1854). In 1866 Carol I came to the throne and Bucharest was equipped with gas, lighting, the Filaret Station and Gara de Nord, tram system, telephone system, several factories, boulevards, administrative buildings, as well as large private lodgings. In 1880, the National Bank of Romania opened as well and building works accelerated in the city.

New buildings were added, including the Romanian Athenaeum, Athénée Palace etc.
Under World War I Bucharest was occupied by the Central Powers and evacuated by German troops. Development continued during the 1930s and the inter-war era was one of the most prosperous eras in Romanian history. Under King Carol II, the city skyline began changing, and numerous art deco- and Neo-Romanian buildings and monuments were built , including the new Royal Palace, the Military Academy, Arcul de Triumf, the University of Bucharest Faculty of Law, the new main wing of Gara de Nord, the ANEF Stadium, the Victoria Palace, Palatul Telefoanelor, Dimitrie Gusti's Village Museum, and the present-day Museum of the Romanian Peasant. There were 3 fascist regimes in the history of Bucharest: one established by Carol II and his National Renaissance Front, the outbreak of World War II brought the National Legionary State and after the Iron Guard Rebellion. In 1944 Germans started bombing the city and they destroyed the National Theatre and engaged in fighting with the Romanian Army. On August 31, the Soviet Red Army entered Bucharest. In February 1945, the Romanian Communist Party organized a protest in front of the Royal Palace, which ended in the fall of the Nicolae Rădescu cabinet and the coming to power of the Communist-backed Petru Groza. In 1948 the Communist Regime was established after the proclamation of People's Republic. Several Socialist buildings were built during the regime such as Casa Scînteii and the National Opera. During Ceausescu's leadership, most of the historical part of the city was destroyed, and replaced with the buildings of Centrul Civic, the Palace of the Parliament. In 1977, the city was stricken by an earthquake that destroyed many old buildings. The Romanian Revolution of 1989, which began in Timisoara, led to Ceausescu's overthrow. After 2000, the city was modernized and numerous historical areas were restored.

In 1993 Romania applied for the membership in the European Union and finally joined the Union on 1 January, 2007.

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